April 26 - 25 years, the explosion of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

everyone hoped that the lessons learned from the tragedy...

Fragment of roof collapse Chernobyl nuclear power plant Sarcophagus 


 And now sorrowful anniversary of the Chernobyl 25 years, marked by NPP explosions Fukushima 1...

However, the danger attracts extreme people. Because of the Chernobyl was stopped final construction the Crimean NPP. 
 The station is constructed by the same plan as the currently operating Khmelnitsky NPP (Ukraine), the Volgodonsk nuclear power plant (Russia) and Temelin (Czech Republic).
 1995-1999-ies there was arranged a legendary rave-festival "KaZantip"- party in reactor.

Post-Accident Management

Building the Chernobyl "sarcophagus" (object "Shelter") was necessary to reduce emissions of radioactive substances from the fragments 4 reactor. The main reason of problems is the use of temporary structure as permanent [1-2].
Previously in the "clean" area were tested methods of remote connection of large constructions, remote control for concrete pumping equipment, designed a system of television and radio construction control, created special cabins-capsules that allow visually inspect poorly accessible places with the help of cranes. To reducethe overall level of radiation dose was shot and buried radioactive ground, fragments of building constructions and equipment from the area around the reactor, after which the entire area was covered with a layer of gravel and sand thickness of 50 cm and a concrete layer. At this concreting had spent more than 100 000 m3 of concrete. [3]
For building of the Chernobyl sarcophagus been used elements of Block 4 destroyed by reactor explosion. This was done to reduce construction period (6 months). But even this variant required the use of more than 200 000 tons of concrete and more than 10 000 tons of steel. The principal disadvantages of this approach are:
- huge collective dose of radiation exposure obtained by builders and fitters;
- necessity to build new structures very close to destroyed reactor in large radiation fields;
- impossibility to fit exactly to each other large metal structures by using remote installation;
- impossibility to assess residual strength of structures after an explosion and fire;
- large masses of concrete were not included in the designated area because of the
imperfections of remote methods of concreting;
- flow of concrete in the damaged areas have limited access to them;
- impossibility accurate and precise work near a strong source of radiation has led to the main
problem of construction - leakage;
- total cracks area was estimated as 1000 m2. [4-8]
Through the holes every year leaks around 2000 m3 of water, which eventually coalesce at rooms of the lower level Block 4. Yearly volumes of condensate at Block 4 is about 1650 m3. The 180 m3/year are the remnants spray for dust suppression. All of this water passes through the debris Block 4 and is going to basement rooms. Every year about 2100 m3 of collected water evaporates, and about 1300 m3 seeps through the foundation at ground under the Block 4 [9].
Water, under the sarcophagus is a source of several kinds of dangers:
- falling on the accumulation of fuel-containing materials, it leads to an increase in the effective neutron multiplication factor in the system;
- water slowly destroys the fuel, and contributes to the uncontrolled movement of radioactivity in the inner rooms and the removal of radionuclides beyond the "Shelter";
- transferring the dissolved salts of enriched uranium, the water can increase the potential danger of a nuclear Object;
- water promotes corrosion destruction of building constructions "Shelter".
- it prevents research to improve the electrical safety of object;
- water violates the normal operation of diagnostic systems. After strong rains have taken place 2 "anomalous" neutron events (significant increase generation of neutrons) recorded by 12 and 16 September 1996. Neutron radiation, which initially increased, after spraying with a solution of gadolinium decreased to usual levels [2].
Carried out in 1995 - 1997 years studies have shown that the main source of water pollution by 90Sr are oxidised fuel particles U3O8. Their rate of dissolution is much higher than that of the fuel particles UO2
In the first moments of the accident takes place the destruction of the fuel tablets of uranium dioxide on grain boundaries. During the Chernobyl accident was found that the over time takes place crushing large particles at a more dangerous form for humans [10-14]. 
Because of the possibility of the collapse of the "Shelter" and the release of radioactive dust into the environment, under the roof was installed dust suppression system, which periodically spray dust suppression solutions. This system has been in operation since 1990, and during this time it was sprayed over 1000 tons of solutions [15].

After the accident comparable with Chernobyl, finely dispersed solid radioactive substances can penetrate into the constructions at a depth of several cm, and the radioactive water at cement screed, plaster, brick at a depth of 10 cm or more. Repeated treatment of decontamination solutions does not usually lead to lower radiation dose rate to acceptable levels. To reduce the level of radiation, it is necessary to cover the surface by lead.
During the Chernobyl accident, the best medical care was assisted for KGB officers. Techniques of enterosorbtion by zeolite and hemodialysis with activated carbon proved their efficiency for removing of radionuclides from the body. Studies have shown that the amount of radionuclides in the body can be reduced by 3-4 times before they produce significant internal exposure [16-20].
Enough quality, to protect from external radiation and radioactive dust, nowadays have only spacesuits for astronauts. For the work at nuclear power plants are most suitable Hard-shell suits. However, they are very heavy and it is necessary to movement a mobile bigger vehicle for one person. 

Among other space-based technology may be useful robot arm for different manipulations.

 The most expensive and most universal way to protect and cool the reactor is filling it by Indium (In). Indium's high neutron capture cross section for thermal neutrons makes it suitable for use in control rods for nuclear reactors, typically in an alloy containing 80% Silver, 15% Indium, and 5% Cadmium [21-27] In the reactor, together with the indium, need to place thermoelectric elements (based on the Peltier effect) as a coolers. All other variants of cooling require mass transfer of cooling fluid. Radioactive water at the reactor is best to use for the concreting of the internal spaces. In the absence of information about the location of molten uranium fuel, it is better in the water and concrete solutions add boron compounds (B4C for example). 
For fast cutting armature rubble, and welding sections of new constructions is best to use plasma torches. Cracks will be formed in construction in any case. The main task is the localization of cracks. In laminated structures, cracks increase mostly within the layer. It must be a sufficient viscosity of the material to resist earthquakes and radiation embrittlement. Lead is consistent most of the requirements. Supporting function should be assigned on the welded, not removable formwork of stainless steel. All other options require additional corrosion protection, which near the source of radiation is difficult to make. The design should be formed layer by layer of lead and concrete. To prevent the formation and movement of radioactive dust by wind, all external surfaces of buildings must be made of steel. Protective structures of steel and concrete, lead, will have considerable weight, and therefore need more support construction for the roof. Temporarily this function can perform reliably fixed crane. On the crane line, fixing the building, must be mounted dampers for the localization of vibrations during earthquakes. It is necessary to mount geodetic marks which allow to determine the sediment and deformation structures in time. For the isolation of radioactive groundwater is necessary under the base lay several layers of rubber. This is usually made by an underground cutter with large number water cutting nozzles. However, all existing models of such units are small in size and are designed for small depth (few meters). To create the underground layers of rubber or heat-resistant materials under nuclear power plants need to design an exclusive technology.
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NPP and its Consequences" IAEA Post Accident Review Meeting, Vienna, 25-29 August 1986.
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June 1994
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nuclear power plant. Approved by the Ministerial Order of 08.04.1998, № 49
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Borovoy A.A. Report of ISTC "Shelter ", arch. № 3836
6. Borovoy A.A., Bogatov S.A., Pazukhin E.M. "The current state of the Shelter and its impact on
the environment" / Radiochemistry. - T.41, № 4, 1999
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the"Shelter" object": - 10 years, the main results of scientific research / National Academy of
Sciences of Ukraine. - Chernobyl, 1996
8. Borovoy A.A., Gorbachev B.I., Evstratenko A.S. et al. "aerosol pollution of the Shelter and
submicron aerosols. Collection " Problems of Chernobyl /  ISTC NAS. Issue 15. Chernobyl 2004
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Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant – Unit 4. State Specialised Enterprise Chernobyl Nuclear Power
Plant, Kiev 2003
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Kiev, 1992. - S. 1 - 19. - Preprint, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences.
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Kurchatov Complex expedition; VNIPIET. - Chernobyl, 1991
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sources of intense gamma rays and evaluation of fuel in the Central Hall of the 4-th unit of Chernobyl.
" NPO "Radium Institute ", Inv. № 1732 and, Chernobyl in 1992
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sources in the central hall of the Sarcophagus, recorded by dosimetric cords using EPR sensors. In:
“Sarcophagus Safety’94”. The State of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit 4. Proceedings of an
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18. Patrick J. Faustino et. al. Quantitative determination of cesium binding to ferric
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preparations from active carbons, clay minerals and natural plant products., Combined and Hybrid
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Crisis management during the earthquakes

In the old times, people panicked from the bad news, nowadays they panic from absence of information. It is necessary to provide full access to information about the ionospheric precursors of earthquakes and after the earthquake access to mobile communication for searching injured.
The main task of crisis management is temporary concentrating of resources and unconcentrating of population in a dangerous area.
It is necessary to use those methods of medical aid, which proved their effectiveness during the most terrible disasters.

1. Introduction
Solar activity, as indicated by sunspots, radio noise and geomagnetic indices, plays a significant but by no means exclusive role in the triggering of earthquakes. Maximum quake frequency occurs at times of moderately high and fluctuating solar activity. Terrestrial solar flare effects which are the actual coupling mechanisms which trigger quakes appear to be either abrupt accelerations in the earth's angular velocity or surges of telluric currents in the earth's crust [1, 2].
Relation between solar activity and seismic and volcanic activity has been shown by many scientists [3-18]. As well known the influence on Earth is not determined by the solar radiation parameters but is determined by parameters of absorbed radiation. Therefore the correlation mechanism of solar activity and seismic activity has not been fully defined. First-ever, on the bursts of solar activity, reacts ionosphere. The results of the study [19] show some unusual perturbations observed in 1–25 days before and 2–3 days after the main shock of every earthquake indicating a clear seismo-ionospheric link and may be used as earthquake precursors. Such subionospheric plasma irregularities have been observed by satellites prior to seismic activity electric and magnetic field perturbations in the upper ionosphere [20]. The final results showed that the ionospheric vertical total electron content around the epicenter of earthquake in China (May 12, 2008), increased obviously 9 days before the earthquake, decreased significantly 6 days before the earthquake and increased strikingly 3 days before the earthquake. The spatial sizes of the vertical total electron content decrement and increment by more than 30% extended larger than 1500 km in latitude and 4000 km in longitude [21]. A great earthquake of M 7.8 occurred near the Okushiri island off the Hokkaido southwest coast in northern Japan at July 12, 1993. Systematic decreases of the ionospheric F2-layer critical frequency, foF2 below its monthly median, were observed at Wakkanai, Kokubunji and Yamagawa, Japan from 3 days before the earthquake onset to 3 days after it. The virtual height of the ionospheric F-layer, h′F increased above its monthly median for nights of July 9, 10 and 11 before the earthquake onset at Kokubunji; while the h′F decreased below its monthly median for nights of July 12, 13 and 14 after the earthquake onset. Local geomagnetic activities near the three ionospheric stations were quiet or moderate with no geomagnetic storm from July 5 to July 16. The ionospheric disturbances observed were independent of solar–terrestrial events [22]. Ionospheric F-region disturbances and anomalous f0Es increases were separately observed within a few days before two great earthquakes in geomagnetic and solar quiet conditions. The anomalous f0Es increases before the earthquake onset could be caused by unknown super-volt seismo discharges since there was no thunderstorm cloud over the observatories [23]. Recent theoretical and experimental studies explicitly demonstrated the ability of space technologies to identify and monitor the specific variations at near-earth space plasma, atmosphere and ground surface associated with approaching severe earthquakes which appear several days (from 1 to 5) before the seismic shock over the seismically active areas. Taking into account that the most promising are the ionospheric precursors of earthquakes the special attention is devoted to the radiophysical techniques of the ionosphere monitoring. For this purpose, are using different methods such as vertical sounding, in-situ probes, ionosphere tomography, GPS total electron content and GPS Meteorology technologies [24]. Ionospheric variability has become a subject of one of the most intensive studies in the area of ionospheric physics. Regardless of our improved knowledge of the ionosphere dynamics, the day-to-day variability still lies within the framework of statistical estimations and the underlying physical mechanisms are far from being fully understood. Significant deviations from monthly median values are observed from time to time in ionospheric records during completely quiet solar and geophysical conditions and are not fully understood [25].

2. Discussion and recommendations

2. 1. Preparation
Ionosphere phenomena are global in nature and should not be studied only locally. Global maps of the ionosphere should be constructed on the same principles as the google-maps: summation of all data from various sources with different scales and for different heights. Changes in the ionosphere are described by many parameters, each of which should be submitted. Different techniques should clarify the errors in measuring the same phenomena. Free access to the source material will allow enthusiasts to make their conclusions. Only complete, without gaps, the array of data on the correlations of trigger mechanisms of solar activity, the response of the ionosphere and magnetosphere, and seismic activity as a consequence can help to build accurate predictions.
At present, about the high risk of earthquakes it's possible to find out in about 3 days. Preparing is needed in any case, even if the prediction is given with a low probability. A set of actions to simplify the subsequent work in the region of the proposed earthquake or/and tsunami:
- unscheduled replenishment of drinking water, products with long shelf life, pharmacological agents and blood;
- unloading of transport arteries from idle transport, strengthening the pillars of bridges especially to the places of contact with the bottom, creation of new temporary roads and the creation of new, reliable fixed, pontoon crossings over water;
- emergency inspection and repair of electrical, aqueduct, pumping stations, drainage channels  and stations of mobile communication;
- increase in the number of ambulances and fire trucks;
- sending some of patients to other hospitals outside the area of the proposed earthquake to increase the number of free places, opening of additional temporary emergency rooms;
- transfer in the area of medical and firefighting or enough large transport helicopters, and the creation of landing sites near hospitals;
- relocation to the area of radiocommunications-aircraft for duplication and unloading of mobile communication networks;
- ordering and delivery to the region elevating construction equipment;
- creating fencing in parking lots.
Recommendations for those people who stayed in the region of increased danger:
- picking of documents on own property, photographing valuables on film camera with evidence of the date (daily newspaper in the frame for example), with the absence of time filming property on the video;
- sticking of the film or scotch on the glass (protection from sharp fragments), additional fixation of furniture from falling;
- regular charging of mobile phone, creation of virtual duplicates of important information;
- purchase of potable water, food long-term storage, activated carbon and first aid staff.
In the case of emergency evacuation need to wear comfortable clothing with a sufficient number of pockets and take documents, money (and jewelery), keys.

2. 2. After the earthquake
In the old times, people panicked from the bad news, nowadays they panic from absence of information. First of all need to restore an uninterrupted mobile communications.
Methods of searching for missing:
- search by mobile phone signals;
- using an infrared camera for search by the heat from the body.
The main factor of strong hitting injuries - it is Pain shock, therefore drunken people easier going through strong damage, even though amount of alcohol does not affect the amount of damage. Doctors should provide medical assistance to victims (at least analgesic), even before them will pull out of the rubble.
If it is not possible to travel on the transport, it is better travel on roller skates.
Only hovercraft can to move rapidly on the destroyed roads. Only aviation can provide rapid delivery of humanitarian relief. Military transport aircrafts (C-130 [26],An-70 [27], A-400M [28], C-17[29], An-124 [30]) can land on ground airfields. In areas even without ground airfields is possible to allocate water area for landing hydroplanes.
Approximately to 4 th day, most people remained under the rubble are dying. Cold dead body is not fixed by infrared camera. Specially trained dogs can found corpses by smell. For relatives-search and identification of the victims is better to use DNA tests. Everyone who wants to leave the dangerous area should have such opportunity. It is necessary to remember that after the tsunami underground water wash out holes in the ground which could be invisible under the asphalt.

2. 3. Accidents at nuclear plants
Technogenic disasters are always complicates the situation.
It is possible to protect from external radiation exposure by decreasing time spent in the danger zone. The plates from lead can to protect from radiation, but it is necessary to know the exact location of the radiation source.
The dose of internal irradiation is formed basically by biologically toxic transuranium elements. Universal effects of radiation exposure are manifested in the form increase the acidity in the tracks of charged particles. As a result, in the irradiated organism is an increase in the number of free radicals [31]. The dose of internal irradiation in direct relation to quantity of radioactive isotopes dissolved in biological liquids. Within 1 h after inhalation, 90% of radionuclides are detected in the digestive tract, while the remaining 10% are absorbed directly into the blood. Enterosorbents on the basic of synthetic active carbons are especially effective to treat the ecological dependent diseases stipulated by accumulation in an organism of heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cd, Ni etc.) and also short- and mid-living radionuclides (140La, 125Te, 131I, 95Zr, 95Nb etc.) are appeared in an environment after Chernobyl NPP accident. The use of enterosorbents of this type has allowed realizing preventive maintenance and treatment of staff working in zones of liquidation of catastrophe consequences. At preventive application of enterosorbents (before the beginning and during work) it was possible on the order to reduce a level of radioactive contamination of an organism. In curative variant 10-14 days course of enterosorption in 2-3 times accelerated removal of incorporated radionuclides from an organism. [32]. Relatively rapid radioactive substances are removed from the muscular, nervous tissue and the skin - in the first 5-30 days. Most slowly radio-isotopes leave the bones - for a few months. As sorbents of heavy metals, Clinoptilolite-Zeolites have been used in the liquidation of major accident at Chernobyl [33-35].

2. 4. Elimination of the consequences
Some changes are noninvertible. For example, after a strong earthquake need to make new geological map of cracks, even if they did not appear on the surface. Buildings that turned out above the cracks must be strengthened. Even a weak geological activity can create Electric currents near the surface, therefore above the cracks in the the crust does not need to to build warehouses with flammable materials.

At preventive application of enterosorbents (active carbons and Clinoptilolite-Zeolites) it is possible to reduce a level of radioactive contamination of an organism.

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